C15. Total Information Awareness



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Total Information Awareness
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640px-IAO-logo (1)
Total Information Awareness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_Information_Awareness
Total Information Awareness (TIA) was a program of the US Information Awareness Office. It was operated from February until May 2003, before being renamed as the Terrorism Information Awareness Program.[4][5]
Based on the concept of predictive policing, TIA aimed to gather detailed information about individuals in order to anticipate and prevent crimes before they are committed.[6] As part of efforts to win the War on Terror, the program searched for all sorts of personal information in the hunt for terrorists around the globe.[7] According to Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), TIA was the “biggest surveillance program in the history of the United States”.[8]
The program was suspended in late 2003 by the United States Congress after media reports criticized the government for attempting to establish “Total Information Awareness” over all citizens.[9][10][11]
Although the program was formally suspended, its data mining software was later adopted by other government agencies, with only superficial changes being made. According to a 2012 New York Times article, the legacy of Total Information Awareness is “quietly thriving” at the National Security Agency (NSA)
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Information Awareness Office
Total_Information_Awareness_--_Communicator_diagram Human-id-at-a-distance Total_Information_Awareness_--_system_diagram 640px-IAO-logo (1)
Information Awareness Office
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Awareness_Office
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U.S. national security, by achieving Total Information Awareness (TIA).[4][5][6]
This was achieved by creating enormous computer databases to gather and store the personal information of everyone in the United States, including personal e-mails, social networks, credit card records, phone calls, medical records, and numerous other sources, without any requirement for a search warrant.[7] This information was then analyzed to look for suspicious activities, connections between individuals, and “threats”.[8] Additionally, the program included funding for biometric surveillance technologies that could identify and track individuals using surveillance cameras, and other methods.[8]
Following public criticism that the development and deployment of this technology could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by Congress in 2003. However, several IAO projects continued to be funded and merely run under different names, as revealed by Edward Snowden during the course of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures
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Combat Zones That See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_Zones_That_See
Combat Zones That See, or CTS, is a project of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) [1] whose goal is to “track everything that moves” in a city by linking up a massive network of surveillance cameras to a centralised computer system.[2] Artificial intelligence software will then identify and track all movement throughout the city.[3]
CTS is described by DARPA as intended for use in combat zones, to deter enemy attacks on American troops and to identify and track enemy combatants who launch attacks against American soldiers.[2]
Civil liberties activists and writers of dystopian fiction believe that such programs have great potential for privacy violations, and have openly opposed the project.
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Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team
800px-HART--_operational_architecture_diagram HURT_concept_drawing
Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterogenous_Aerial_Reconnaissance_Team
The Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team (HART) — formerly known as the “Heterogeneous Urban RSTA Team (HURT)”—program was an aerial surveillance project funded by the Information Processing Technology Office (which was merged into the Information Innovation Office) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency with program managers John Bay and Michael Pagels. The purpose of the program was to develop systems that could provide continuous, real-time, three-dimensional surveillance of large urbanized areas, using unmanned aerial vehicles. The project team was led by Northrop Grumman corporation, and involved several other academic and corporate researchers
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VIRAT
800px-VIRAT-operational-concept-diagram 800px-VIRAT--_system_concept_diagram
VIRAT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VIRAT
The Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool (VIRAT) program is a video surveillance project funded by the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).[2][3][4]
The purpose of the program was to create a database that could store large quantities of video, and make it easily searchable by intelligence agents to find “video content of interest” (e.g. “find all of the footage where three or more people are standing together in a group”) — this is known as “content-based searching”. [1]
The other primary purpose was to create software that could provide “alerts” to intelligence operatives during live operations (e.g. “a person just entered the building”).  The focus of VIRAT is primarily on footage from UAVs such as the MQ-1 Predator. As of the writing of the project solicitation in March 2008, most analysis of drone footage is done in a very labor intensive manner by humans, who have to do manual “fast-forwarding” searches through video, or perform search queries of metadata or annotations added to videos earlier. The goal of VIRAT is to change all of this and have a large portion of the burden taken off of humans, and automating the analysis of surveillance video.
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