C16. Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act



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Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
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Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_Assistance_For_Law_Enforcement_Act
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010).

CALEA’s purpose is to enhance the ability of law enforcement agencies to conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and manufacturers of telecommunications equipment modify and design their equipment, facilities, and services to ensure that they have built-in surveillance capabilities, allowing federal agencies to monitor all telephone, broadband internet, and VoIP traffic in real-time.
The original reason for adopting CALEA was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s worry that increasing use of digital telephone exchange switches would make tapping phones at the phone company’s central office harder and slower to execute, or in some cases impossible. Since the original requirement to add CALEA-compliant interfaces required phone companies to modify or replace hardware and software in their systems, U.S. Congress included funding for a limited time period to cover such network upgrades. CALEA was passed into law on October 25, 1994 and came into force on January 1, 1995.
In the years since CALEA was passed it has been greatly expanded to include all VoIP and broadband internet traffic. From 2004 to 2007 there was a 62 percent growth in the number of wiretaps performed under CALEA — and more than 3,000 percent growth in interception of internet data such as email.[1]

By 2007, the FBI had spent $39 million on its DCSNet system, which collects, stores, indexes, and analyzes communications data
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Fusion center
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusion_center
A fusion center is an information sharing center, many of which were jointly created between 2003 and 2007 under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Office of Justice Programs in the U.S. Department of Justice.

They are designed to promote information sharing at the federal level between agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. military, and state- and local-level government. As of July 2009, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security recognized at least 72 fusion centers. Fusion centers may also be affiliated with an Emergency Operations Center that responds in the event of a disaster.
The fusion process is an overarching method of managing the flow of information and intelligence across levels and sectors of government to integrate information for analysis.[1] That is, the process relies on the active involvement of state, local, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies—and sometimes on non-law enforcement agencies (e.g., private sector)—to provide the input of raw information for intelligence analysis. As the array of diverse information sources increases, there will be more accurate and robust analysis that can be disseminated as intelligence.
A two-year senate investigation found that “the fusion centers often produced irrelevant, useless or inappropriate intelligence reporting to DHS, and many produced no intelligence reporting whatsoever.”[2][3] The report also said that in some cases the fusion centers violated civil liberties or privacy
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Intellipedia
640px-Intellipedia2008 Three_Wikis_that_make_up_Intellipedia Screenshot-Intellipedia Intellepedia_logo_cmyk
Intellipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellipedia
Intellipedia is an online system for collaborative data sharing used by the United States Intelligence Community (IC).[1] It was established as a pilot project in late 2005 and formally announced in April 2006 [2][3] and consists of three wikis running on JWICS, SIPRNet, and Intelink-U. The levels of classification allowed for information on the three wikis are Top Secret, Secret, and Sensitive But Unclassified/FOUO information, respectively. They are used by individuals with appropriate clearances from the 16 agencies of the intelligence community and other national-security related organizations, including Combatant Commands and other federal departments. The wikis are not open to the public.[4]
The three wikis that make up Intellipedia.
Intellipedia is a project of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Community Enterprise Services (ICES) office headquartered in Fort Meade, Maryland. It includes information on the regions, people, and issues of interest to the communities using its host networks. Intellipedia uses MediaWiki, the same software used by the Wikipedia free-content encyclopedia project.[5] ODNI officials say that the project will change the culture of the U.S. intelligence community, widely blamed for failing to “connect the dots” before the September 11 attacks.[citation needed]
The Secret version connected to SIPRNet predominantly serves Department of Defense and the Department of State personnel, many of whom do not use the Top Secret JWICS network on a day-to-day basis. Users on unclassified networks can access Intellipedia from remote terminals outside their workspaces via a VPN, in addition to their normal workstations. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) users share information on the unclassified network.
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MALINTENT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MALINTENT
MALINTENT is technological system that was developed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to be implemented for detection of potential terrorist suspects.
The system does various test scanning for elevated blood pressure, rapid heart and breath rate, and non-verbal cues. According to the scientists, the MALINTENT system uses a barrage of non-invasive sensors and imagers to detect and evaluate a person’s facial expressions to gauge whether he or she could be planning to commit an attack or crime.
In its current development, it can recognize seven primary emotions and emotional clues and will eventually have equipment which can analyze full body movement, an eye scanner and a pheromone-reader.[2]
If the sensors pick up anything considered alarming, analysts can decide whether to subject a person to questioning.
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Utah Data Center
640px-National_Security_Agency.svg Crypto_key.svg 660px-Flag_of_Utah.svg Utah_Data_Center_of_the_NSA_in_Bluffdale_Utah_vector.svg
Utah Data Center
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utah_Data_Center
The Utah Data Center, also known as the Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative Data Center,[1] is a data storage facility for the United States Intelligence Community that is designed to store extremely large amounts of data, estimated to be on the order of exabytes or higher.[2] Its purpose is to support the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI), though its precise mission is classified.[3] The National Security Agency (NSA), which will lead operations at the facility, is the executive agent for the Director of National Intelligence.[4] It is located at Camp Williams near Bluffdale, Utah, between Utah Lake and Great Salt Lake.
The megaproject was completed in late 2013 at a cost of $1.5 billion despite ongoing controversy over the NSA’s involvement in the practice of mass surveillance in the United States. Prompted by the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, the Utah Data Center was hailed by The Wall Street Journal as a “symbol of the spy agency’s surveillance prowess”
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Investigative Data Warehouse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Investigative_Data_Warehouse
The Investigative Data Warehouse (IDW), is a searchable database operated by the FBI. It was created in 2004. Much of the nature and scope of the database is classified. The database is a centralization of multiple federal and state databases, including criminal records from various law enforcement agencies, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), and public records databases. According to Michael Morehart’s testimony before the House Committee on Financial Services in 2006, the “IDW is a centralized, web-enabled, closed system repository for intelligence and investigative data. This system, maintained by the FBI, allows appropriately trained and authorized personnel throughout the country to query for information of relevance to investigative and intelligence matters.”
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Open-source intelligence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-source_intelligence
Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is intelligence collected from publicly available sources.[1] In the intelligence community (IC), the term “open” refers to overt, publicly available sources (as opposed to covert or clandestine sources); it is not related to open-source software or public intelligence.
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