C21. Info War & Propaganda



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Info War & Propaganda
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Propaganda in the United States
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_in_the_United_States
Propaganda in the United States is propaganda spread by government and media entities within the United States. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. Propaganda is not only in advertising; it is also in radio, newspaper, posters, books, and anything else that might be sent out to the widespread public.

NDAA and Overturning of Smith-Mundt Act[edit]
The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (NDAA) allows for materials produced by the State Department and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) to be released within U.S. borders and strikes down a long-time ban on the dissemination of such material in the country.[14][15][16]

Ad Council[edit]
The Ad Council, an American non-profit organization that distributes public service announcements on behalf of various private and federal government agency sponsors, has been labeled as “little more than a domestic propaganda arm of the federal government” given the Ad Council’s historically close collaboration with the President of the United States and the federal government.
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White propaganda
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_propaganda
White propaganda is propaganda which truthfully states its origin.[1][2] It is the most common type of propaganda. It generally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion than black propaganda (which purports to come from the opposite side to that which actually produced it) and grey propaganda (which has no identifiable source or author). It typically uses standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument; in some languages the word “propaganda” does not even have a negative connotation. Jacques Ellul, in one of the major books on the subject of propaganda, Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes, mentions white propaganda as an awareness of the public of attempts being made to influence it. There is a Ministry of Propaganda; one admits that propaganda is being made; its source is known; its aims and intentions are identified. [3] Throughout the course of a propaganda campaign white propaganda serve as a cover for black propaganda when the propagandist seeks to
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Grey Propaganda
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_propaganda#grey
Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position.
Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. Propaganda can be used as a form of ideological or commercial warfare.
While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples (e.g. Nazi propaganda used to justify the Holocaust), propaganda in its original sense was neutral, and could refer to uses that were generally benign or innocuous, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement, among others.
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Further history

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Black propaganda
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_propaganda
Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. It is typically used to vilify, embarrass or misrepresent the enemy.[1] Black propaganda contrasts with grey propaganda, the source of which is not identified, and white propaganda, in which the real source is declared and usually more accurate information is given, albeit slanted, distorted and omissive. Black propaganda is covert in nature in that its aims, identity, significance, and sources are hidden.
The major characteristic of black propaganda is that the people are not aware that someone is trying to influence them, and do not feel that they are being pushed in a certain direction.[2] Black propaganda purports to emanate from a source other than the true source. This type of propaganda is associated with covert psychological operations.[3] Sometimes the source is concealed or credited to a false authority and spreads lies, fabrications, and deceptions. Black propaganda is the “big lie”, including all types of creative deceit.[4] Black propaganda relies on the willingness of the receiver to accept the credibility of the source. If the creators or senders of the black propaganda message do not adequately understand their intended audience, the message may be misunderstood, seem suspicious, or fail altogether.[4]
Governments will generally conduct black propaganda operations for two different reasons.[citation needed] First, by disguising their direct involvement a government may be more likely to succeed in convincing an otherwise unbelieving target audience. Second, there are diplomatic reasons behind the use of black propaganda. Black propaganda is necessary to obfuscate a government’s involvement in activities that may be detrimental to its foreign policies
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Shared Values Initiative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_values_initiative
The Shared Values Initiative was a public relations campaign created by the U.S. State Department and directed by Charlotte Beers, a former Madison Avenue advertising executive, to persuade viewers to be more aware, open and accepting of America by dispelling myths about the treatment of Muslims.[1] The propaganda campaign was launched soon after September 11, 2001 and was intended to sell a “new” America to Muslims around the world by showing that American Muslims were living happily and freely in America without persecution. Although initially thought to be a success by the U.S. Government and Charlotte Beers’ team, the $15 million initiative was regarded as a failure
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